Although writing an essay is daunting for many people, it can be pretty straight-forward. This page is a general recipe for constructing an essay, not just in philosophy, but in most other humanities disciplines (such as English, History, Religious Studies, etc.) and perhaps the social sciences. It should be an appropriate guide for writing at the middle school, high school, and lower college levels. The typical assignment I have in mind will be an argumentative essay, in which you argue for something, even if just an interpretation of someone an author’s work.
Note that what I provide here are only general guidelines. Be sure to check whether your instructor has different ones. If your instructor has not given clear guidelines, then these should suffice, since they are pretty standard.
Note: If you need help figuring out how to write an essay in philosophy specifically and at the college level, see my “Writing in Philosophy.” If you want to know how I evaluate students on a paper assignment, see my “Grading Rubric for Paper Assignments.”
Table of Contents:
- Essay Structure
- General Writing Tips
- Style & Punctuation
- Grammatical Errors
- Humorous Writing Guidelines
- Citations & References
- Relevant Links
- Typed – use a word processor (such as Microsoft Word) on a computer.
- Spacing – the space between lines on the page is typically double-space. However, it may be changing. (I now prefer single-spaced myself.)
- Font size – standard size of the text is usually 12-point.
- Font style – standard font, such as Times New Roman.
2. Essay Structure
The first thing to notice is that the basic form of an essay is quite logical. Let’s look at the standard structure of an essay starting with the most general. You can divide your paper into three main sections:
For the introduction section, you will need to do two things: introduce your topic and provide a thesis statement. Typically, these two tasks should be accomplished using only one paragraph for a short paper, but can be longer for longer papers.
First, introduce your topic. The introductory paragraph(s) should briefly orient the reader to the topic and provide a conceptual map of the rest of the paper.
Second, provide a thesis statement.
Your thesis statement is the main point of your paper and should address the paper topic assigned by your instructor.
Make sure your thesis statement is clear, specific, declarative, and on-topic. You should be able to provide the thesis statement in one or two sentences (most instructors prefer one, concise sentence) for a fairly short paper (about 1-8 pages). It is usually best stated at the end of your introduction section (the end of the first paragraph if your introduction section is only a single paragraph in length).
The body section should consist of at least several paragraphs where you will provide support for your thesis statement in the form of reasons, evidence, arguments, justification, and so on. That is, you have something you want to communicate or argue for (your thesis) and here is your chance to explain it in detail, support it, and defend it.
Each paragraph in the body section should have a topic sentence and, perhaps, a transition sentence. The topic sentence is the particular point you are trying to make in the paragraph. It’s sort of like a mini-thesis statement. It should usually be the first sentence of the paragraph, though in some cases it is appropriate to be the second sentence. A transition sentence is a sentence that helps link the points of each paragraph together by making a smooth transition from the previous paragraph. It can be done in the first sentence of the new paragraph or the last sentence of the previous one. A good way to tie all the points together throughout the body section is to have them all clearly state how they support the thesis statement. That way it is obvious that all of your paragraphs tie together. Note that the first sentence of the paragraph may satisfy both goals. That is, you may have a topic sentence that also serves to transition well. Another option is to have a transition sentence first and then a separate topic sentence following it.
The summary section (often misleadingly called a “conclusion”) is a short recap of what you have said in the essay. You might want to provide a slightly different version of your thesis statement as the first sentence of this paragraph and then provide a few sentences that sum up what the body section said in support of the thesis statement. The summary section should be only one paragraph long for a short paper, but can be longer for longer papers. (Some instructors, like me, even think that summary sections are unnecessary for short papers.)
Note: It’s a good idea to put these sections titles in as headings in your paper to organize and break things up for yourself and your reader. If your instructor doesn’t want headings in your paper, just take them out before you print it to turn it in. It is also helpful for long papers to put in additional headings, perhaps even sub-headings, to break up the body section (such as “First Argument,” “Second Argument,” and so on).
3. General Writing Tips
1. Think & Discuss
Familiarize yourself with the material before you begin writing. You won’t be able to write much if you don’t have anything to put on the page. Think about your paper topic as soon as you get the paper assignment prompt from your instructor. This can be facilitated in a number of ways. A great way is to discuss the issue with your instructor or teaching assistant. You can even try talking about it to a friend or family member.
2. Rough Drafts & Editing
Write rough drafts ahead of time. For most people, writing their rough ideas down as rough drafts helps them see their ideas more clearly than even thinking about them. Then take a break from the essay (this usually requires at least a half, if not full, day). After the lengthy break (for example, the next day), go back and edit more. Repeat this process as necessary until finished. (This is why it is important to start working on your essay far in advance!)
Also, don’t be afraid to just type without thinking too much about whether it’s any good. You can always go back and edit it. Many people find it best to just sit down and write a lot without much reflection. Just make sure you have enough time to go back and edit.
Once you have a final draft ready, have someone read it to look for errors and provide feedback. Many instructors encourage students to turn in early drafts to them for comments. Just be sure to check and see if your instructor allows you to do so.
4. Style & Punctuation
Overall, the paper should demonstrate a command of the writing process and the author’s care in crafting it. Avoid errors of spelling, punctuation, grammar, sentence structure, verb tense, and vocabulary, such as the following:
- Put punctuation inside quotations (for American writing). If you put something in quotations that is immediately followed by punctuation (such as commas or colons), then put the punctuation mark inside the last quotation mark.
Correct: John Doe claims that, “Britney Spears is a tool.”
Incorrect: John Doe claims that, “Britney Spears is a tool”.
Another example: “I’m in love with Space Ghost,” Bjork proclaimed.
(Note: I know this rule doesn’t seem right. The British style of writing has the punctuation outside the quotation marks, which makes more sense. However, the American style requires that you write it the other way.)
- Put parenthetical citations outside of quotations.
Correct: “Blah, blah, blah, this is a quote” (Author 32).
Incorrect: “Blah, blah, blah, this is a quote (Author 32).”
- Introduce quotes. Introduce quotes, preferably by acknowledging who is saying it.
Example: In the article “War Without End,” John Doe says, “…blah, blah, and blah” (36).
Notice the three dots in the quote (…), which is called an elipses. You’re supposed to put those in when you are not quoting the whole sentence. It denotes that something came before (or after) the part of the sentence you are quoting.
- Generally, spell out numbers. For example, write ‘three,’ not ‘3.’ Exceptions can be made for larger numbers, like 1089, especially when you are simply making reference to a numeral.
- Avoid informal abbreviations and notations. For example, don’t write ‘&’ for ‘and’ or ‘b/c’ for ‘because.’ However, there are notations and abbreviations that are conventions in professional writing; for example: ‘e.g.’ is often used for ‘for example’ and ‘etc.’ for ‘et cetera’ and ‘p.’ for ‘page.’ However, for this last one, note that it is only used in citing sources or references, not in other sentences. So, for example, don’t write “The p. had many words of wisdom written on it.”
- Use versus mention. In general, when you mention (or talk about) rather than use a word you should put quotes (single or double) around the word. This is not necessary when you use a word.
Incorrect: John contains the letter h.
Correct: ‘John’ contains the letter ‘h.’
(Note: Some people simply italicize the word to indicate mention. I follow this convention here sometimes so that it is easier to read. However, it can get confused with emphasis, which is what italics are more commonly used for. Also, the standard for use-mention indication is not exactly clear. Most people use quotes and use single quotes for British style and double quotes for American style. I tend to use single quotes just to distinguish them from quoting what someone has said.)
- Write well and consider your reader! Good writing keeps the reader’s perspective in mind. It takes work to read someone’s ideas. You owe it to your readers to explain your ideas clearly and ideally in a pleasing manner. To become a better writer in terms of style, read widely and find good writers to emulate (some excellent non-fiction writers that come to mind: Paul Bloom, Rebecca Goldstein, and Steven Pinker).
- Recognize the Flexibility of Writing Rules. You’ll notice that skilled writers don’t always follow all the “rules” for writing. They know that the rules are somewhat flexible and can even be explicitly broken for good effect at times. You might be able to get away with the same, but it’s good to practice working well within them for graded papers!
5. Common Grammatical Errors to Avoid
- Misusing i.e. and e.g.Do not confuse these two. They do not mean the same thing!
i.e. = that is
e.g. = for example
(Many people think that ‘i.e’ stands for ‘in example.’ That is false. Both are abbreviations for two different latin phrases.)
- Using ‘if’ when you should use ‘whether’.
Incorrect: I do not know if this is true.
Correct: I do not know whether this is true.
Correct: If this is true, then you are wrong.
- Confusing ‘there’ with ‘their.’ ‘Their’ indicates possession, ‘there’ does not.
Incorrect: There problem was a lack of courage.
Correct: Their problem was a lack of courage.
Incorrect: Their are a lot of problems here.
Correct: There are a lot of problems here.
- Misconnecting verbs.
Incorrect: We should try and change the law.
Correct: We should try to change the law.
- Letting your accent get in the way of things.
Incorrect: Mind and brain are one in the same thing.
Correct: Mind and brain are one and the same thing.
Incorrect: Socrates should of fought.
Correct: Socrates should have fought.
- Improper form of the plural possessive of names.
Incorrect: Descarte’s problem was ….
Incorrect: Descartes problem was….
Correct: Descartes’ problem was….
Correct: Descartes’s problem was….
(Note: Either of the last two is acceptable only for names ending in ‘s’ like ‘Descartes’ or ‘Jesus.’ Otherwise, always go with the last example–i.e., add an apostrophe and an ‘s.’ The convention is usaully to not add an extra ‘s’ for old names, such as ‘Descartes’ and ‘Jesus.’ So, to say that this is the book that Rawls owns, people often write: “This is Rawls’s book.”)
- Improper use of semi-colons.
Incorrect: The following will be on the test; Locke, Hume, Parfit.
Incorrect: Although there is no right answer; there are many wrong answers.
Correct: There is no right answer; there are many wrong answers.
(The Rule: Use a semi-colon only where you could use a period instead. In other words, a semi-colon must join two clauses that could stand by themselves as complete sentences. The semi-colin is just used to indicate that the two sentences are connected or intimately related.)
- Confusing ‘then’ and ‘than’.
Incorrect: If this is true, than I’m a fool.
Incorrect: I am more of a fool then you are.
Correct: If this is true, then I’m a fool.
Correct: I am more of a fool than you are.
- Its versus it’s.
Incorrect: Its easy to make this mistake.
Incorrect: It’s pages are crumbling.
Correct: It’s easy to make this mistake.
Correct: Its pages are crumbling.
(Note: partly adapted from Pasnau’s Top 10 Writing Errors)
6. Humorous Writing Guidelines
- Be more or less specific.
- Use not bad grammars.
- Proofread carefully to see if you any words out.
- Don’t use no double negatives.
- Avoid tumbling off the cliff of triteness into the dark abyss of overused metaphors.
- Take care that your verb and your subject is in agreement.
- No sentence fragments.
- Placing a comma between subject and predicate, is not correct.
- Who needs rhetorical questions?
- Use the apostrophe in it’s proper place.
- Avoid colloquial stuff, like totally.
- Avoid those run-on sentences you know the ones they stop and then start again they should be separated with semicolons.
- The passive voice should be used infrequently.
- And avoid starting sentences with a conjunction.
- Excessive use of exclamation points can be disastrous!!!!
- Exaggeration is a million times worse than understatement.
- Stamp out and eliminate redundancy because, if you reread your work, you will find on rereading that a great deal of repetition can be avoided by rereading and editing, so reread your work and improve it by editing out the repetition you noticed during the rereading.
- It’s incumbent on one to employ the vernacular and eschew archaisms.
- It’s not O.K. to use ampersands & informal abbreviations.
- Parenthetical remarks (however relevant) are usually (but not always) an obstacle for readers (and make it harder on readers even if you’re being careful).
7. Citations & References
If you are doing an essay that involves researching or you quote anyone in your essay, then you need to cite your sources. There are many different formalized styles for citing sources. For example: MLA (Modern Language Association), Chicago (Turabian), APA (American Psychological Association), and more. The most standard for English papers is MLA. You can buy the official books on how to properly cite sources according to certain styles, but you can also find a lot of that information on the Internet.
Here are a few Internet resources for citation styles:
8. Relevant Links
A MiddleWeb Blog
By Shara Peters and Jody Passanisi
The main purpose of school is to prepare children to be successful after school. Everyone talks about our “digital age” and the shifts in education it necessitates. One shift is abundantly clear: written communication has never been as important as it is now.
When we were in school, people communicated differently – people actually talked on the phone. Now, thanks to texting, email, blogs, etc., more and more communication happens through writing.
The nature of writing is changing as well. People are rapidly scrolling through newsfeeds and scanning for interesting articles. If you want your ideas to be read, you have to get to the point quickly. And if you make grammar errors, or state something that is factually incorrect, you will be judged instantly – in a very public way.
In our own teaching, we’ve always maintained that writing is an essential skill for middle schoolers to develop. Whether your classroom is project based, inquiry based, student-centered, teacher-driven or lecture-style, your students are going to need to learn to express their understandings, evaluation, and synthesis through writing.
And not just any writing, but writing that is clear, cogent, concise, backed-up with research and facts, and well argued.
Scaffolding the Writing Experience
Middle grades students are asked to do more with their writing than we were as students. Today, summaries and reporting on facts are seldom enough; standards speak to evaluation, analysis, and synthesis. Advances in technology are helping to move writing in these directions, giving students the capacity to quickly revise their work from first to final draft, without tediously copying multiple versions.
In addition, the availability of information plays an important part in the raising of expectations. It is no longer difficult to gather facts and data, so the difficulty must be reflected elsewhere – in what is done with the information. Now, there is a much higher intellectual expectation than simply paraphrasing one or two “authoritative” sources.
With this advance in expectations comes an increased need for scaffolding the learning process. Some students find these demands for higher orders of thinking and writing very challenging, to say the least. They are adolescents, still moving from concrete to formal operations in the Piagetian sense, and will often need our support with their writing.
The Five-Paragraph Essay
Throughout our teaching careers, integrating writing skills – and having students demonstrate understanding of content through writing – has been a priority. But we haven’t always done it the same way.
When we first started teaching social studies in middle school, we used a five-paragraph essay. We provided the students an outline so that they could learn the important components of the format (intro, thesis, supporting paragraphs, transitions, conclusion – for example, this essay organizer on the Constitution). The essays were evaluative, and the students were required to use evidence from specific readings and notes that had been introduced and worked through during class.
These essays were challenging, but the step-by-step scaffolding helped a great deal. The parts that were the most difficult are not really surprising: the thesis, the analysis, the conclusion – the components that required the most critical and evaluative thinking.
As time passed, we began to ask our students to be more accountable for the sources they used, as Jody wrote about last year in this MiddleWeb piece on using citations in history. Even so, at the end of each unit, students continued to use our five-part outline to showcase their writing, their ability to synthesize, and their knowledge of the historical content that we had just explored.
While this organizing tool helped some students structure their ideas into some impressive essays, we came to see that it was masking some students’ writing deficiencies. Though the final product (after multiple revisions) often appeared to include high level thinking and deep comprehension, the amount of teacher guidance and outside help that some students received made us doubt the integrity of the assignment, and whether it was a true assessment of student comprehension and ability.
We began to wonder if timed writing events, where student writing skills would be “unmasked,” might add an important formative assessment element.
The Essay Under Time Constraints
Timed writing is by no means new, but it is seeing a resurgence in the high schools where our students often matriculate. In history class these timed writings are based on a few primary or secondary source documents (or a mixed grouping of both) and students are asked to make an evaluative statement about a historical period or concept using the evidence given.
DBQs, or Document Based Questions, have also been around awhile (in AP courses, for example). But again, they are increasingly becoming a primary way to procure evidence of student understanding – evidence of students’ ability to read, comprehend, synthesize, organize, and evaluate evidence “like historians” through their own writing.
This resurgence can be seen as part of the general increase in activities and experiences that ask the students to think more critically and analytically, a phenomenon we associate with the rise of the Common Core Standards. We have been incorporating more and more of these types of writing experiences into our teaching to prepare our students for what will be expected of them when they go to high school.
Timed writings don’t always have to be DBQ based. At the end of a project-based learning unit, Jody used a timed writing to see if students were able to synthesize the varied information they had learned about the causes of the Civil War into an evaluative and succinct four paragraph essay that was written over a class period.
Students were asked to answer the question “What Caused the Civil War?” with a clear thesis, evidence, and citations, culminating in a conclusion that got to a “so what?” point. While this was a challenge, most students were able to demonstrate understanding with clear writing. The feeling of self-efficacy gained in timed writings in middle school will carry over to high school when students are tasked with a similar writing assignment – to write quickly and clearly and convey something important to the reader.
These timed writings can better show the teacher the students’ process skills at various stages, without having to rely completely on a finished (and often heavily scaffolded) product. That said, the scaffolding provided by the essay outline should also be part of instruction. You don’t just hand challenging assignments to the kids and say “go for it!”
There will be some students who have special needs or Individualized Education Plans who may need a great deal of additional support and possibly much more time than other students in the class, but the exposure to timed writing, if it is done with a learning rather than “testing” vibe, can help each and every student to reach a personal goal, even if that goal is modified.
Teachers can help all students to lower their affective filter in writing simply by exposing them to the timed writing process. We believe this exposure will help them a great deal in their academic careers.
Despite the fact that timed writings seem to be in vogue at the moment and the DBQ method helps students to begin to think like historians, we don’t think that the five paragraph essay is ready for the dumpster. The writing skills that the students gain, not to mention the thinking skills, are important. The vehicle in which they get to the writing is secondary to the experience of writing about historical concepts – and writing a lot.
What’s next for middle grades writing in social studies? The push for writing analytically is an important one, and one that will only help students be able to navigate the past in a more critical way. Gaining advanced writing skills will also impact their present, empowering them to articulate their views in more meaningful language.
How do you use writing in the social studies classroom?